Mineral extraction in underground mines particularly adapted to the mining of potash whereby simultaneously with extraction and refining of the ore the waste tailings are returned to the excavated area (5) in the mine and the space opposite to where the ore is being removed is backfilled by the tailings in order to support the mine roof These surface mining methods are considered to be more efficient and economical in extracting minerals as compared to most methods of underground mining In fact it can extract almost 90% of ore from a deposit For this reason surface mining is the most widely used method in North America

The Block Cave Mining Method

This report is advocated towards a layman in block caving in view of getting an impression about the block cave mining method Chapter One – Introduction 1 1 Block Caving Block caving is an underground mining method applicable to the extraction of low-grade massive ore bodies with the following characteristics:

Guide to Underground Mining: Methods and Applications Mining and construction methods: Author: Hans Hamrin: Contributor: MCT AB (Suisse) Publisher: 1980: Original from: Pennsylvania State University: Digitized: Oct 9 2009: Length: 39 pages : Export Citation: BiBTeX EndNote RefMan

Operating since 1952 Driefontein consists of eight producing shaft systems using a combination of longwall and scattered mining methods Kusasalethu Gold Mine Formerly known as the Elandskraal gold mine Kusasalethu is located 75km west of Johannesburg and began operation in 1978

Mining engineering is an obvious candidate for application of rock mechanics principles in the design of excavations generated by mineral extrac tion A primary concern in mining operations either on surface or underground is loosely termed 'ground control' i e

Underground mines are the alternative to surface mines Surface mines excavate from the top down a method that can become inefficient at depths greater than about 200 feet (60 meters) [sources: Illinois Coal Association De Beers] Undergrounds coal mines can drive 2 500 feet (750 meters) into the Earth and other types even deeper -- uranium mines can reach 6 500 feet or 2 kilometers

Mine Shaft Stock Photos And Images

Download Mine shaft stock photos Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images photos and vectors Photos Mine Shaft Stock Photos and Images 2 966 matches Sort by : Relevance Relevance New Georank Filter by : Image Type All Subsurface underground mining process isometric composition poster Vector Similar Images

Coal Mining Methods Underground Mining Longwall Room and Pillar Mining Longwall mining and room-and-pillar mining are the two basic methods of mining coal underground with room-and-pillar being the traditional method in the United States Both methods are well suited to extracting the relatively flat coalbeds (or coal seams) typical of

Coal is mined by two methods: s urface or 'opencast' mining or underground or 'deep' mining The choice of mining method largely depends on the geology of the coal deposit Underground mining currently accounts for a bigger share of world coal production than opencast although in several important coal producing countries surface

Graphite is a natural form of carbon characterized by its hexagonal crystalline structure It is extracted using both open pit and underground mining methods Although the naturally occurring ore is abundantly found and mined in many countries including the U S the largest producer of graphite is China followed by

Choosing a mining method The various methods of mining a coal seam can be classified under two headings surface mining and underground mining Surface and underground coal mining are broad activities that incorporate numerous variations in equipment and methods and the choice of which method to use in extracting a coal seam depends on many technological economic and social factors

Underground Mining Methods and Applications Production Headframe Hans Hamrin* 1 1 INTRODUCTION Ore is an economic concept It is defined as a concentration of minerals that can be exploited and turned into a saleable product to generate a financially acceptable profit under existing economic conditions The definition of ore calls for

Surveying in the mining industry both in open-pit and underground mines often goes hand in hand with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) which is deployed to verify the spatial changes of mining works Thanks to its high point density and high accuracy TLS is a very suitable surveying technique for monitoring movements and deformations

Underground Mining Methods and Applications Production Headframe Hans Hamrin* 1 1 INTRODUCTION Ore is an economic concept It is defined as a concentration of minerals that can be exploited and turned into a saleable product to generate a financially acceptable profit under existing economic conditions The definition of ore calls for

Underground mining (hard rock)

section describes underground mining equipment with particular focus on excavation machinery such as boomheaders coal cutters continuous miners and shearers 1 Underground Mining Methods 1 1 Classification of Underground Mining Methods Mineral production in which all extracting operations are conducted beneath the ground

Underground mining (hard rock) Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals such as those containing metals like gold copper zinc nickel and lead or gems such as diamonds In contrast soft rock mining refers to excavation of softer minerals such as coal or oil sands Mine Access

Step 3 (Underground) GOING UNDERGROUND Miners mining materials and equipment are transported deep underground via the mine cage in the vertical shaft which can go to depths of up to 3 5km below the surface Open-pit gold mining also takes place in South Africa This is a mining technique which excavates at the surface to extract ore

In the future robots in underground mining may be used in mixed scenarios with tasks shared between miner and machine Potential benefits arising from the application of mobile robots in underground mining are manifold An improvement in occupational safety for people and equipment alike can be

Underground Mining Methods presents the latest principles and techniques in use today Reflecting the international and diverse nature of the industry a series of mining case studies is presented covering the commodity range from iron ore to diamonds extracted by operations located in all corners of the world

There are four main mining methods: underground open surface (pit) placer and in-situ mining Underground mines are more expensive and are often used to reach deeper deposits Surface mines are typically used for more shallow and less valuable deposits Placer mining is used to sift out valuable metals from sediments in river channels beach sands or other environments

The environmental toll of underground mining is significant It includes air pollution changes in water-flow patterns chemical and gas seepage into water supplies and soil inaccessible fires in abandoned mines and dramatic changes in land composition that can make the area unusable after the mining operation is done [source: Saxena] Then there is the human toll

Mining Methods There are four key stages of work involved in mining for minerals These include: 3415 3416 Prospecting – The purpose of this stage is to identify areas that are likely to contain mineral deposits The work includes geological geochemical and geophysical surveys (e g seismic surveying) aerial surveys including the taking of samples by low-impact mechanical methods